Can HIPAA Help Secure the Health Care Space?Health care has long topped the list of industry rankings with the highest amount of data breaches. While other industries are also experiencing an increase in data breaches, the health care industry remains a prime target for attackers. By: Brian Dean
Since May 2005, more than 244 million medical records have been reported compromised. In the first half of 2019, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Office for Civil Rights (OCR) reported an average of 37.2 data breaches a month, compared to 29.5 reported in 2018.
What is HIPAA?
In 1996, the United States introduced HIPAA, or the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act, as federal law. The law intended to make personal health information data portable for the purposes of insurance but also to improve the availability of patient data for physicians, doctors, and covered entities, subsequently improving service. To make data more readily available (i.e., portable), lawmakers needed to also put protections around it.
HIPAA and Subsequent Amendments Timeline: 1996 and Beyond
The law contained multiple components, each with respective effective dates.
- Privacy Rule: It established a national standard that covered entity must comply with when protecting patients' medical records; specifically, protected health information (PHI). It defined patients' rights and provided the ability to restrict how PHI should be collected, used, shared, protected, and ultimately when it is destroyed (effective date: April 2003).
- Security Rule: It specifically set a national standard for the secure maintenance, transmission, and storage of electronic PHI (ePHI); focusing on administrative, technical, and physical safeguards (effective date: April 2005).
- Breach Notification Rule: It provided the HHS and Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) power to investigate any complaints about the failure of a covered entity to comply to the Privacy Rule. It also gave the Office of Civil Rights the power to issue financial penalties (and/or corrective action plans) to covered entities that failed to comply with HIPAA Rules (effective date: March 2006). It stipulated that all breaches of ePHI affecting more than 500 individuals must immediately be reported to the HHS's Office for Civil Rights. The criteria for reporting breaches of ePHI were subsequently extended in the final Omnibus Rule of March 2013. The breach notification rules outline a definitive timeline by which covered entities need to communicate the loss to HHS, as well as state regulators, and ultimately, the patients that have been breached.In their notification to patients, covered entities will need to include what was lost, when it was lost, and what patients can do to protect themselves.
- Omnibus Rule: The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) had the primary goal of compelling health care authorities to implement the use of electronic health records (EHRs) and introduced the Meaningful Use incentive program. Stage one of Meaningful Use rolled out the following year, incentivizing health care organizations to maintain the protected health information of patients in electronic format, rather than in paper files (effective date: March 2013). The Omnibus Rule also intended to further strengthen the privacy and security protections for health information. Notably, it saw the introduction of a new clause for covered entities which meant that not only covered entities had to protect the data, but if they give the data to somebody else (e.g., service providers), contractually the new recipient was required to protect the data as well.
How is PHI defined as Covered by HIPAA?
The Privacy Rule protects all "individually identifiable health information" held or transmitted by a covered entity or its business associate, in any form or media, whether electronic, paper, or oral. The Privacy Rule calls this information "protected health information" (PHI).3
HIPAA broadly defines PHI as medical data about a person obtained by a covered entity or downstream business associate (i.e., a specifically defined HIPAA term for service providers receiving PHI). PHI is any health information that can be tied to an individual, which under HIPAA, means protected health information includes one or more of 18 identifiers. If these identifiers are removed, the information is considered de-identified protected health information, which is not subject to the restrictions of the HIPAA Privacy Rule.
When is Health Information Not Protected by HIPAA?
PHI created or maintained by a covered entity or service provider/business associate must be protected. For example, if you go to a health care provider like a doctor or hospital, and you give them information, or they derive information from tests, that's all protected health information. However, if you talk to your employer and tell them you are not feeling well, that has nothing to do with a covered entity and is not protected under HIPAA but may be covered by state/federal and privacy laws.
What Organizations Need to be HIPAA Compliant?
This federal law is compulsory for covered entities and business associates, defined as:
- Health care providers (e.g., hospitals, doctors, dentists)
- Health Plans (e.g., insurance agencies, company health plans)
- Health care clearinghouses (entities that get PHI and manipulates it to make available for other purposes. For example, the Center for Disease Control might need certain data points to protect U.S. citizens from disease, and that data may be shared from covered entities or health care providers to help them facilitate their efforts.)
- Per the Omnibus Rule of 2013, it is also a contractual obligation for service providers (i.e., business associates) that covered entities may share ePHI with.
Do I Have Reporting Requirements to Become HIPAA Certified?
There is no regulatory agency certifying HIPAA compliance. Unlike certification frameworks like PCI and ISO 27001, the HIPAA statute and subsequent amendments do not outline a finite set of compliance or controls requirements which you can be tested and certified against by a HHS approved assessor. Covered entities and service providers can, however, validate their compliance or use an objective third-party service provider to deliver an objective validation that controls are in place and effective (e.g., Security Controls Assessments, also known as Gap Assessments). In addition, there are industry organizations to help organization leverage best practice (e.g., NIST and HITRUST). These frameworks were designed to meet the spirit of HIPAA by defining controls. While it's required that covered entities and service providers comply with HIPAA, it's not required that you follow a specific framework.
Today, HITRUST CSF is the most widely adopted U.S. HIPAA security framework. The state of Texas now provides additional protections for covered entities and their business associates who obtain CSF Certification. The demand for business associates is increasingly important, as covered entities use the HITRUST certification to verify that the business partners they are trusting with their patients' data is adequately protected.
How Does Secureworks® Help with HIPAA?
Secureworks experts can provide independent third-party expertise by performing an objective review of existing controls to help covered entities and service providers meet HIPAA data security protection requirements with confidence. During a Security Controls Assessment, our security and HIPAA experts can help you navigate compliance, identify weaknesses and gaps, and provide recommendations so you not only strengthen your security posture, but you also meet HIPAA Security Rules requirements, prevent fines, and protect patients.
Building a HIPAA Compliance program is not a one-time project. Instead it is a program, an ongoing process to not only be compliant throughout the year, but to be secure. Using a trusted partner with the expertise to build the HIPAA program can improve security posture, improve compliance, but more importantly implement a cost-effective program that is sustainable and defensible in the event of a reportable data breach.
Additional Resource: Download our HITRUST Solution Brief to understand how Secureworks approaches HITRUST Certification.
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